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          閱讀 5091 次 歷史版本 0個 創建者:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/8 13:33:51)  最新編輯:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/8 13:33:51)
          鬼臉升麻
          目錄[ 隱藏 ]

          中藥名

          升麻 shengma

          別名

          綠升麻、西升麻、空升麻、周升麻、雞升麻、鬼臉升麻。

          英文名

          Cimicifugae Rhizoma。

          來源

          毛茛科植物大三葉升麻Cimici,uga heracLei,oliaKom.、興安升麻Cimici uga dahurica(Turcz.) Maxim.或升麻Cimicifuga foetidaL.的根莖。(本文以升麻為準,右圖亦為升麻)

          植物形態

          多年生草本。根莖粗壯,堅實,表面黑色,有多數內陷的圓洞狀老莖殘跡。莖直立,中空。下部莖生葉片三角形,2~3回3出羽狀全裂;頂生小葉菱形,邊緣有鋸齒,側生小葉具短柄或無柄,比頂生小葉略小。圓錐花序,花序軸和花梗密被灰色或銹色的腺毛及短毛;花兩性;萼片5,倒卵狀圓形,白色或綠白色,退化雄蕊位于萼片內面,寬橢圓形,頂端微凹或2淺裂,能育雄蕊多數;心皮2~5,密被灰色毛。瞢樊果長圓形,被貼伏的柔毛,基部漸狹成長2~3毫米的柄,頂端有短喙;種子3~8粒,橢圓形,全體生膜質鱗翅。花期7~9月,果期8~10月。

          產地分布

          生于山地林緣、林中或路旁草叢中。分布于河南、山西、湖北、陜西、寧夏、甘肅、青海、四川、云南、西藏等地。

          采收加工

          秋季采挖,除去泥沙,曬至須根干時,燎去或除去須根,曬干。

          藥材性狀

          不規則長形塊狀,多分枝,呈結節狀,長10~20厘米,直徑2~4厘米,表面黑褐色或棕褐色,粗糙不平,有堅硬的細須根殘留,上面有數個圓形空洞狀的莖基痕,洞內壁顯網狀溝紋;下面凹凸不平,具須根痕。體輕,質堅硬,不易折斷,斷面不平坦,有裂隙,纖維性,黃綠色或淡黃白色。氣微,味微苦而澀。

          性味歸經

          性微寒,味辛,微甘。歸肺經、脾經、胃經、大腸經。

          功效與作用

          發表透疹、清熱解毒、升舉陽氣。屬解表藥下屬分類的辛涼解表藥。

          臨床應用

          用量3~9克,水煎服;或入丸、散。用治風熱頭痛、齒痛、口瘡、咽喉腫痛、麻疹不透、陽毒發斑、脫肛、子宮脫垂等。

          藥理研究

          升麻常見的有4個品種,有效成分有一定差異,臨床應用大體相同,除用來發表升陽外,配葛根等對麻疹等病毒之毒血癥有較好的療效。有解熱,降溫,抗炎,鎮痛;鎮靜,抗驚厥;增強免疫功能;護肝,解痙等作用。

          化學成分

          本品主要含升麻堿、水楊酸、樹脂、咖啡酸、異阿魏酸、阿魏酸、馬栗樹皮素、咖啡酸、25-O-乙酰基-升麻醇、升麻精、北升麻寧、類葉升麻苷A、升麻苷C、芥子酸等成分。

          使用禁忌

          陰虛陽浮,喘滿氣逆及麻疹已透者禁服。服用過量可產生頭暈、震顫、四肢拘攣等證。

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